Cisco Press CCIE R&S v5 Ex.1-1 Lab: Manual configuration of the speed and duplex

Cisco Press CCIE R&S v5 Ex.1-1 の提示されたサンプルを実際に試してみたら意外と大変だったという話。
やっぱり実機検証はいろいろと勉強になるなというもの。

この例はオートネゴシエーションを使わずに手動のデュプレックス、速度を設定する例で、片方を全二重で、もう一方を半二重にしてどうなるかというもの。
CDP ではデュプレックスの不一致として警告が表示される。

途中で実機を変更してやったのでスイッチ間のインタフェース番号が f0/3 から f0/13 になってます。
予め該当するインタフェースは no shut しておく。

ASW1#sh int f0/3
FastEthernet0/3 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0022.bd89.2183 (bia 0022.bd89.2183)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit/sec, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 10/100BaseTX
  input flow-control is off, output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:08, output 00:00:01, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     174 packets input, 20631 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 86 broadcasts (86 multicasts)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 86 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected

speed -> duplex の順に設定する。
duplex を先に設定しようとすると reject される。
とのこと。

ASW1(config-if)#duplex half
ASW1(config-if)#
*Mar  1 00:22:33.250: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/3, changed state t
o down
ASW1(config-if)#
*Mar  1 00:22:35.255: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/3, changed state t
o up

コマンド入ったやんけ。。。

ASW1(config-if)#do sh int f0/3
FastEthernet0/3 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0022.bd89.2183 (bia 0022.bd89.2183)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit/sec, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 10/100BaseTX
  input flow-control is off, output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:06, output 00:00:01, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     281 packets input, 33916 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 144 broadcasts (144 multicasts)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 144 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected

ちなみに IOS 15 系の Catalyst 2960 系

IOS 12 系の話か??

クロスケーブルとストレートケーブルがごっちゃになってて面倒。
まあ、Catalyst スイッチはだいたい Auto MDI/MDI-X やってくれるんだけどね。

ちなみにルータ同士はちゃんとクロスで接続しないとリンクアップしない。
物理レベルでは up してるけど L2 レベルではリンクアップしていないのがわかる。

Catalyst 2940 を引っ張り出してくる。

R2#sh int f0/1
FastEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is down
  Hardware is Gt96k FE, address is 0024.c431.126f (bia 0024.c431.126f)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit/sec, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Auto-duplex, Auto Speed, 100BaseTX/FX
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:01:25, output 00:01:26, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     5 packets input, 1690 bytes
     Received 5 broadcasts (0 IP multicasts)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     20 packets output, 2330 bytes, 0 underruns

IOS 12 でも duplex コマンド先に入ったんだけど、、、

本当は以下のエラーが表示される。

Duplex will not be set until speed is set to non-auto value

原典にあたる。

  1. イーサネット 10/100/1000 Mbps 半二重/全二重自動ネゴシエーションの設定とトラブルシューティング – Cisco
  2. Tutorial: Cisco Catalyst 3560 Switch Interfaces Configuration – Cisco & Cisco Network Hardware News and Technology

今使ってるスイッチ

  1. Catalyst 2940 IOS 12
  2. Catalyst 2960 IOS 15
  3. Catalyst 3750 IOS 15

このセクションで説明するコマンドは、次のタイプのスイッチ製品に適用されます。 Cisco IOS システム ソフトウェア(スーパーバイザ エンジン III)が稼働する Catalyst 2900XL、3500XL、2950、3550、2948G-L3、4908G-L3、Catalyst 4500/4000 スイッチ製品、および Cisco IOS システム ソフトウェアが稼働する Catalyst 6500/6000 スイッチ製品

型番違う。
つまり再現できないじゃん。
そういうこととして覚えとくしか無いんか。。。
プラットフォーム依存。

output, collision の表記もない。
なんなんや・・・

54 output errors, 5 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 54 late collision, 59 deferred

このへん激しいトラフィックが無いとコリジョン起こさないからだめなのかな・・・

ASW2#sh int f0/3
FastEthernet0/3 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0026.ca6b.e983 (bia 0026.ca6b.e983)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit/sec, DLY 1000 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, 10Mb/s, media type is 10/100BaseTX
  input flow-control is off, output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:01, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 3000 bits/sec, 2 packets/sec
     34467 packets input, 2590785 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 28785 broadcasts (28784 multicasts)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 28784 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected

IOS 12 系でもそんな出力はない。

Switch#sh int f0/1
FastEthernet0/1 is down, line protocol is down (notconnect)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0012.7f15.d881 (bia 0012.7f15.d881)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, Auto-speed, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 01:45:28, output 01:45:29, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     26737 packets input, 2148098 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 22650 broadcasts (0 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 22650 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     67480 packets output, 4791532 bytes, 0 underruns

なんなんや・・・

Solved: Catalyst 3850 high Total output drops a… – Cisco Support Community

あんま重要でもないのかなこのトピックは。

もっかい原典あさる。
今度は検索は cisco.com 直指定。英語のドキュメントのみ探す。

site:cisco.com Duplex will not be set until speed is set to non-auto value
  1. Configuring and Troubleshooting Ethernet 10/100/1000Mb Half/Full Duplex Auto-Negotiation

!— Error: On this platform, you must set the speed before the duplex.
!— Not all switch platforms have this command ordering requirement.

プラットフォーム依存だよとのこと。そういうことかよ・・・

日本語は have this command で尻切れトンボで終わってるので絶対原文読んだほうがいい。

Cisco Press の原著読む場合でも CCO (っていうのかな?)を合わせて調べるのは必須ということやな・・。

  1. Cisco.com (CCO) に登録しよう:ネットワークエンジニアになろう!
  2. CCIE R&S CCO (cisco.com) 公式ドキュメント
  3. Select Your Product or Technology – Product/Technology Support – Cisco Systems

残りの検証内容は

双方向の大量のトラフィックを流して確認

Solved: CRC Errors on Cat 2950 – Cisco Support Community

1週間後ぐらいの追試。
ヤフオクで Catalyst 2950 2台落札してやりました。

本当は以下の項目も表示してほしい

54 output errors, 5 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 54 late collision, 59 deferred

Switch#sh ver
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) C2950 Software (C2950-I6Q4L2-M), Version 12.1(22)EA13, RELEASE SOFTWARE
 (fc2)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2009 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 27-Feb-09 22:20 by amvarma
Image text-base: 0x80010000, data-base: 0x80570000

ROM: Bootstrap program is C2950 boot loader

Switch uptime is 10 minutes
System returned to ROM by power-on
System image file is "flash:/c2950-i6q4l2-mz.121-22.EA13.bin"

cisco WS-C2950SX-24 (RC32300) processor (revision M0) with 20957K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID FOC1037Z1E9
Last reset from system-reset
Running Standard Image
24 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
2 Gigabit Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)

32K bytes of flash-simulated non-volatile configuration memory.
Base ethernet MAC Address: 00:19:2F:FC:AC:C0
Motherboard assembly number: 73-8135-08
Power supply part number: 34-0965-01
Motherboard serial number: FOC10341U7G
Power supply serial number: DTH10274Z6H
Model revision number: M0
Motherboard revision number: A0
Model number: WS-C2950SX-24
System serial number: FOC1037Z1E9
Configuration register is 0xF

Catalyst 2950 で確認

duplex を先に投入すると本当は以下のエラーが表示される。

Duplex will not be set until speed is set to non-auto value

こんなものは表示されない。
IOS のバージョンが上がって直った(?)のだろうか。
手持ちの実機で正直この挙動に出会った例がない。
キリがないのでこれ以上の深追いはしないことにする。

sh int の出力の確認

Switch#sh int f0/1
FastEthernet0/1 is down, line protocol is down (notconnect)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0019.2ffc.acc1 (bia 0019.2ffc.acc1)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, Auto-speed, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input never, output 00:09:53, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts (0 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 0 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

Catalyst 2950 でデュプレックス不一致による挙動の確認

FDX

ASW201#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0019.2ffc.accd (bia 0019.2ffc.accd)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 251/255, txload 57/255, rxload 12/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:05, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 4949000 bits/sec, 809 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 22638000 bits/sec, 2060 packets/sec
     411676 packets input, 332699284 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 7072 broadcasts (6309 multicast)
     0 runts, 21 giants, 0 throttles
     9003 input errors, 8982 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 6309 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     2811088 packets output, 4106529108 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

HDX

ASW202#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0017.5a3a.7c0d (bia 0017.5a3a.7c0d)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 251/255, txload 9/255, rxload 61/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:16, output 00:00:00, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 24171000 bits/sec, 2124 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 3752000 bits/sec, 614 packets/sec
     2684300 packets input, 3962300144 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 344 broadcasts (342 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     1 input errors, 0 CRC, 1 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 342 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     309583 packets output, 255885396 bytes, 0 underruns
     5381 output errors, 8423 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 5445 late collision, 18454 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

FDX のロジックの側は

     5381 output errors, 8423 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 5445 late collision, 18454 deferred

このへんのカウンタが(ほぼ?)上昇しないことがわかった。

相互に全力でパケット流し続ける。

iperf3 -s
iperf3 -c 172.18.1.6 -t 3600
iperf3 -s
iperf3 -c 172.18.2.2 -t 3600

ASW201 は FDX のロジックで、 ASW202 は HDX のロジックで動作する。
ASW201 はいつでもフレームを送信し続ける。
同時に ASW202 側でもフレームを送信したらコリジョンが起きたものと判断する。
そして 18454 パケットが deferred される(送信を待機する)。

12時間ぐらい放置したあと。

HDX

ASW201#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0019.2ffc.accd (bia 0019.2ffc.accd)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:03, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     879767 packets input, 586720930 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 56873 broadcasts (55382 multicast)
     0 runts, 36 giants, 0 throttles
     17239 input errors, 17203 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 55382 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     3455579 packets output, 666514759 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 11897 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 17801 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
ASW202#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0017.5a3a.7c0d (bia 0017.5a3a.7c0d)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:15, output 00:00:01, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     3396105 packets input, 590841071 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 2767 broadcasts (2765 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     1 input errors, 0 CRC, 1 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 2765 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     879812 packets output, 586931392 bytes, 0 underruns
     17482 output errors, 46185 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 17354 late collision, 84193 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

tmux, screen のスクロールバックがつらくなってくる。
つらぽよ。

terminal length 0

FDX にする。

ASW201#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0019.2ffc.accd (bia 0019.2ffc.accd)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:02, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     880443 packets input, 586772899 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 57481 broadcasts (55982 multicast)
     0 runts, 36 giants, 0 throttles
     17239 input errors, 17203 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 55982 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     3455687 packets output, 666526536 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 11897 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 17801 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
ASW202#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0017.5a3a.7c0d (bia 0017.5a3a.7c0d)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:00, output 00:00:00, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     3396207 packets input, 590852464 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 2805 broadcasts (2803 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     1 input errors, 0 CRC, 1 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 2803 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     880442 packets output, 586980014 bytes, 0 underruns
     17482 output errors, 46185 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 17354 late collision, 84193 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

数時間放置して寝た

ASW201#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0019.2ffc.accd (bia 0019.2ffc.accd)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:02, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     910656 packets input, 589062019 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 84721 broadcasts (82823 multicast)
     0 runts, 36 giants, 0 throttles
     17239 input errors, 17203 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 82821 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     3459979 packets output, 666973580 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 11897 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 17801 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
ASW202#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0017.5a3a.7c0d (bia 0017.5a3a.7c0d)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:04, output 00:00:01, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters never
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     3400501 packets input, 591299636 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 4124 broadcasts (4122 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     1 input errors, 0 CRC, 1 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 4122 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     910666 packets output, 589269858 bytes, 0 underruns
     17482 output errors, 46185 collisions, 2 interface resets
     0 babbles, 17354 late collision, 84193 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

カウンタ値でかすぎてよくわからないのでリセットする。

ASW201#clear counters f0/13
Clear "show interface" counters on this interface [confirm]
ASW201#
22:05:07: %CLEAR-5-COUNTERS: Clear counter on interface FastEthernet0/13 by console
ASW202#clear counters f0/13
Clear "show interface" counters on this interface [confirm]
ASW202#
22:05:08: %CLEAR-5-COUNTERS: Clear counter on interface FastEthernet0/13 by console

イーサネットのフレームサイズは最低64バイト

ASW201#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0019.2ffc.accd (bia 0019.2ffc.accd)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:06, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:00:05
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
     4 packets input, 264 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 6 broadcasts (6 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 4 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
ASW202#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0017.5a3a.7c0d (bia 0017.5a3a.7c0d)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:06, output 00:00:01, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:00:05
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 1000 bits/sec, 1 packets/sec
     0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 0 broadcasts (0 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 0 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     4 packets output, 264 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

片方FDX, HDXにする
ルータ同士で同時に ping 飛ばす

R1#ping 172.18.1.2
R2#ping 172.18.1.1
ASW201#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0019.2ffc.accd (bia 0019.2ffc.accd)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:01, output 00:00:02, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:02:26
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 1000 bits/sec, 2 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 1000 bits/sec, 1 packets/sec
     350 packets input, 33846 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 157 broadcasts (155 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     2 input errors, 2 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 153 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     204 packets output, 23350 bytes, 0 underruns
     0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
     0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out
ASW202#sh int f0/13
FastEthernet0/13 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
  Hardware is Fast Ethernet, address is 0017.5a3a.7c0d (bia 0017.5a3a.7c0d)
  MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
     reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
  Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
  Keepalive set (10 sec)
  Half-duplex, 100Mb/s, media type is 100BaseTX
  input flow-control is unsupported output flow-control is unsupported
  ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00
  Last input 00:00:18, output 00:00:01, output hang never
  Last clearing of "show interface" counters 00:02:26
  Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0
  Queueing strategy: fifo
  Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)
  5 minute input rate 1000 bits/sec, 2 packets/sec
  5 minute output rate 2000 bits/sec, 3 packets/sec
     203 packets input, 23232 bytes, 0 no buffer
     Received 7 broadcasts (7 multicast)
     0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles
     0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored
     0 watchdog, 7 multicast, 0 pause input
     0 input packets with dribble condition detected
     350 packets output, 33846 bytes, 0 underruns
     2 output errors, 1 collisions, 0 interface resets
     0 babbles, 2 late collision, 8 deferred
     0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier, 0 PAUSE output
     0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

正直良くわからん。

     2 output errors, 1 collisions, 0 interface resets
     0 babbles, 2 late collision, 8 deferred

このへんはバイトとかそういうもんじゃなくてパケット単位のことだろう。
イーサネットの最低フレーム長64バイト、最初の64バイトで検出された衝突が 1 collisions
64バイト送出後に検出された衝突が 2 late collisions
そして deferred されたフレーム数が 8 deferred

正直英語がよくわからんのですよ。。。。
単語レベルで調べればなんとなくわかるが文節レベルでちょっと複雑な文章になると細かい意味を捉えるのが辛くなる。
このへんでチョット英語できる人とできない人の明暗が分かれる。

Also, the retransmission of the frames that Switch4 thought were destroyed because of a collision, but might not have been, causes duplicate frames to be received, occasionally causing application connections to fail and routers to lose neighbor relationships.

Google 翻訳にかけたらだいたいわかった。

衝突によってスイッチ4はフレームが破壊されたと認識したことによるフレーム再送は重複したフレームが受信されることになり、時たまアプリケーションの接続失敗やルータのネイバー関係を喪失することがあるらしい。

まとめ

CCIE を取得するにあたって Cisco の洗礼を受けました。
CCIE R&S Official Cert Guide Library を隅々まで理解するためには CCO 大事そうだし(今は cisco.com というらしいが、未だに CCO とよく呼ばれているとのこと)、他のドキュメントも参照して積極的に実機検証する必要があるということがわかった。
それに加えて Cisco Press の Official Cert Guide Library は Written の Blueprint をカバーするだけであって、ラボ試験対策には INE のワークブック等を併用してやる必要があるとのこと。

これ検証するのに 2, 3 週間ぐらい消費してしまった。
CCIE の Do I know this already Quiz ですげー細かい所聞いてきてこんなとこまで聞かれるのかと戦慄した。

References

CCIE R&S Official Cert Guide Library v5.0 Vol.1

Catalyst 2960 シリーズの IOS を復活させる

一言で言うと Catalyst スイッチの設定を消そうとして CF カード内にある IOS も一緒に消しちゃいましたーということです。
本当は delete flash:vlan.dat がしたかった。
フラッシュメモリ内のファイルが全部消えるけどええのんか?って聞かれたんだけど、どうせあっても vlan.dat だろーって思ってたら違った。
CF カードには IOS も入ってる!!!!!!!
ッターンとエンターキーを押して気づいたときには時すでに遅し。

Switch#erase flash:
Erasing the flash filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]

Using driver version 1 for media type 1
Base ethernet MAC Address: 00:22:bd:89:21:80
Xmodem file system is available.
The password-recovery mechanism is enabled.
Initializing Flash...
mifs[2]: 0 files, 1 directories
mifs[2]: Total bytes     :    3870720
mifs[2]: Bytes used      :       1024
mifs[2]: Bytes available :    3869696
mifs[2]: mifs fsck took 0 seconds.
mifs[3]: 0 files, 1 directories
mifs[3]: Total bytes     :   27998208
mifs[3]: Bytes used      :       1024
mifs[3]: Bytes available :   27997184
mifs[3]: mifs fsck took 0 seconds.
...done Initializing Flash.
done.
Loading "flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8/c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin"...flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8/c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin: no such file or directory

Error loading "flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8/c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin"

Interrupt within 5 seconds to abort boot process.
Boot process failed...

The system is unable to boot automatically.  The BOOT
environment variable needs to be set to a bootable
image.


switch:

以下は復旧の記録。
tar で固めた IOS があるんですが、 boot loader にそんな高等機能はないので tar の中にある bin 取り出してそれを XMODEM 転送しました。

switch: copy xmodem: flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin
Begin the Xmodem or Xmodem-1K transfer now...
C

2016-11-20_21h54_35

...........................................................................................
File "xmodem:" successfully copied to "flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin"
switch: help
           ? -- Present list of available commands
        boot -- Load and boot an executable image
         cat -- Concatenate (type) file(s)
        copy -- Copy a file
      delete -- Delete file(s)
         dir -- List files in directories
  flash_init -- Initialize flash filesystem(s)
      format -- Format a filesystem
        fsck -- Check filesystem consistency
        help -- Present list of available commands
      memory -- Present memory heap utilization information
       mkdir -- Create dir(s)
        more -- Concatenate (display) file(s)
      rename -- Rename a file
       reset -- Reset the system
       rmdir -- Delete empty dir(s)
         set -- Set or display environment variables
      set_bs -- Set attributes on a boot sector filesystem
   set_param -- Set system parameters in flash
       sleep -- Pause (sleep) for a specified number of seconds
        type -- Concatenate (type) file(s)
 -- MORE --
       unset -- Unset one or more environment variables
     version -- Display boot loader version

switch: dir flash:
Directory of flash:/

    2  -rwx  11834880                 c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin

16066560 bytes available (11931648 bytes used)
switch: boot flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin
Loading "flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin"...@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
File "flash:c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE8.bin" uncompressed and installed, entry point: 0x3000
executing...

              Restricted Rights Legend

Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is
subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph
(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.

           cisco Systems, Inc.
           170 West Tasman Drive
           San Jose, California 95134-1706



Cisco IOS Software, C2960 Software (C2960-LANBASEK9-M), Version 15.0(2)SE8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2015 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Thu 14-May-15 02:39 by prod_rel_teamInitializing flashfs...
Using driver version 3 for media type 1
mifs[4]: 0 files, 1 directories
mifs[4]: Total bytes     : 3870720
mifs[4]: Bytes used      : 1024
mifs[4]: Bytes available : 3869696
mifs[4]: mifs fsck took 0 seconds.
mifs[4]: Initialization complete.

mifs[5]: 1 files, 1 directories
mifs[5]: Total bytes     : 27998208
mifs[5]: Bytes used      : 11931648
mifs[5]: Bytes available : 16066560
mifs[5]: mifs fsck took 0 seconds.
mifs[5]: Initialization complete.

...done Initializing flashfs.
Checking for Bootloader upgrade..
Boot Loader upgrade not required (Stage 2)

POST: CPU MIC register Tests : Begin
POST: CPU MIC register Tests : End, Status Passed

POST: PortASIC Memory Tests : Begin
POST: PortASIC Memory Tests : End, Status Passed

POST: CPU MIC interface Loopback Tests : Begin
POST: CPU MIC interface Loopback Tests : End, Status Passed

POST: PortASIC RingLoopback Tests : Begin
POST: PortASIC RingLoopback Tests : End, Status Passed

POST: PortASIC CAM Subsystem Tests : Begin
POST: PortASIC CAM Subsystem Tests : End, Status Passed

POST: PortASIC Port Loopback Tests : Begin
POST: PortASIC Port Loopback Tests : End, Status Passed

Waiting for Port download...Complete


This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United
States and local country laws governing import, export, transfer and
use. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply
third-party authority to import, export, distribute or use encryption.
Importers, exporters, distributors and users are responsible for
compliance with U.S. and local country laws. By using this product you
agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. If you are unable
to comply with U.S. and local laws, return this product immediately.

A summary of U.S. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at:
http://www.cisco.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.html

If you require further assistance please contact us by sending email to
export@cisco.com.

cisco WS-C2960-8TC-L (PowerPC405) processor (revision A0) with 65536K bytes of memory.
Processor board ID FOC1230U65J
Last reset from power-on
1 Virtual Ethernet interface
8 FastEthernet interfaces
1 Gigabit Ethernet interface
The password-recovery mechanism is enabled.

64K bytes of flash-simulated non-volatile configuration memory.
Base ethernet MAC Address       : 00:22:BD:89:21:80
Motherboard assembly number     : 73-10611-07
Power supply part number        : 341-0208-01
Motherboard serial number       : FOC12287J8F
Power supply serial number      : LIT12260BQV
Model revision number           : A0
Motherboard revision number     : C0
Model number                    : WS-C2960-8TC-L
System serial number            : FOC1230U65J
Top Assembly Part Number        : 800-28132-01
Top Assembly Revision Number    : C0
Version ID                      : V01
CLEI Code Number                : COM8A00ARA
Hardware Board Revision Number  : 0x01


Switch Ports Model              SW Version            SW Image
------ ----- -----              ----------            ----------
*    1 9     WS-C2960-8TC-L     15.0(2)SE8            C2960-LANBASEK9-M




Press RETURN to get started!


*Mar  1 00:00:33.839: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan1, changed state to down
*Mar  1 00:00:34.225: %SPANTREE-5-EXTENDED_SYSID: Extended SysId enabled for type vlan
*Mar  1 00:00:35.282: %DC-4-FILE_OPEN_WARNING: Not able to open flash:/dc_profile_dir/dc_default_profiles.txt
*Mar  1 00:00:35.282: %DC-6-DEFAULT_INIT_INFO: Default Profiles DB not loaded.
*Mar  1 00:00:55.641: %SYS-5-RESTART: System restarted --
Cisco IOS Software, C2960 Software (C2960-LANBASEK9-M), Version 15.0(2)SE8, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport
Copyright (c) 1986-2015 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Thu 14-May-15 02:39 by prod_rel_team


         --- System Configuration Dialog ---

Enable secret warning
----------------------------------
In order to access the device manager, an enable secret is required
If you enter the initial configuration dialog, you will be prompted for the enable secret
If you choose not to enter the intial configuration dialog, or if you exit setup without setting the enable secret,
please set an enable secret using the following CLI in configuration mode-
enable secret 0 
----------------------------------
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no
Switch>en
Switch#
  • Ciscoデバイスの管理 – Catalystスイッチ – xmodemによるIOSのダウンロード